Overview 6-12 year

Language Curriculum

For Montessori children, writing typically precedes reading through the use of moveable alphabet letters.  Teachers use storytelling across the curriculum to convey information.  Children are encouraged to discuss and share their ideas with one another and in larger groups.  Both fiction and non-fiction serve to expand the children’s knowledge and awareness.  They discuss shared readings of stories and books.  This involves preparation of the reading and a willingness to listen and respectfully discuss ideas about the text.  The study of grammar in the Montessori classroom is unique.  Each part of speech has a distinctive colorful symbol.  Children place these symbols above the words of a poem or a prose passage to see its grammatical structure.

Major components of the Language Curriculum

  1. Written Language
  2. The History of Writing
  3. Composition
  4. Mechanics
  5. Handwriting
  6. Word Processing
  7. Spoken Language
  8. The Story of Spoken Language
  9. Discussions
  10. Oral Reports
  11. Recitation of Poetry
  12. Drama

III.  Grammar

  1. Word Study
  2. Parts of Speech
  3. Sentence Analysis
  4. Reading
  5. Mechanics
  6. Comprehension
  7. Oral and Silent Reading
  8. Literature (prose, poetry, drama, and non-fiction)
  9. Discussion of Shared Readings
  10. Research
  11. Works of Authors or Illustrators
  12. History of Language
  13. Comparison of Languages
  14. Library Resources

Mathematics Curriculum

Maria Montessori did not view the progression of math as strictly linear.  Instead, she envisioned math as a three-tiered progression.  The first tier consists of the numbers to ten, place values, and the four operations.  The second tier is dedicated to memorization of math facts.  The third tier is where children study hierarchy.  Children are free to move from one tier to another while exploring different concepts of math simultaneously.

Montessori places great emphasis on Geometry.  Children in lower elementary study lines, angles, plane figures, three-dimensional figures, and linear and cubic measurement.  Through their studies, students are able to discover the abstract concepts of algebra using materials that were once part of their sensorial experience.

Major Components of the Mathematics Curriculum

  1. The History of Mathematics
  2. The Story of Numbers
  3. History of Number Systems
  4. Numeration and Concepts of Numbers
  5. Whole Numbers
  6. Ordinal Numbers
  7. Number Lines
  8. Positive and Negative Numbers
  9. Odd and Even Numbers
  10. Commutative and Associative Properties
  11. Skip Counting (by a number to its cube)
  12. Properties of Zero
  13.  Hierarchies (formation, reading, and writing of numbers to 1,000,000)
  14. Rounding to the nearest Ten, Hundred, or Thousand
  15. Estimation
  16. Expanded Notation

III.  Whole Number Operations

  1. Memorization of Addition and Subtraction Facts
  2. Memorization of Multiplication and Division Facts
  3. Number Sentences with Missing Addends
  4. Fact Families and Inverse Operations
  5. Static and Dynamic Addition
  6. Static and Dynamic Subtraction
  7. Addition and Subtraction of Decimals (money)
  8. Multiplication with one-, two-, and three-digit multipliers
  9. Division with one-, and two-digit divisors (with remainders)
  10. Distributive and Group Division
  11. Negative Numbers
  12. Fractions and Decimals
  13. Fractions from the Whole to Tenths (quantity and symbol)
  14. Comparing Fractions
  15. Equivalence of Fractions
  16. Adding and Subtracting Fractions (like and unlike denominators)
  17. Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions
  18. Reducing Fractions to Lowest Terms
  19. Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers
  20. Introduction to Fraction Multiplication and Division
  21.  Decimals from the Unit to Millionths (quantity and symbol)
  22.  Comparing Decimals
  23. Adding and Subtracting Decimals
  24. Multiplication and Division of Decimals by Whole Numbers
  25. Multiples and Factors
  26. Tables of Multiples
  27. Common Multiples and the Search for LCM
  28. The Decanomial (geometric and numerical)
  29. Common Factors and the Search for GCF
  30. Divisibility
  31. Prime Numbers
  32. Powers of Numbers
  33. Squares and Cubes of Numbers from 1-10
  34. Notation of Powers (exponents)
  35. Square Roots of Numbers
  36. Squares of Binomials and Trinomials
  37. Square of Decanomials
  38. Powers of Two
  39. Powers of Three

VII.  Measurement

  1. History of Measurement
  2. English and Metric Measurement (Length, Volume/Capacity, Weight/Mass)
  3. Temperature (Fahrenheit and Celsius)
  4. Measurement of Time (Analog and Digital Clocks; Calendar)
  5. Money (counting, coin equivalences, making change)

VIII.  Geometry

  1. History of Geometry
  2. Design Elements (metal insets, the geometric cabinet, etc.)
  3. Use of Tools, (straightedge, ruler, compass, protractor)
  4. Computer Application
  5. Symmetry
  6. Geometry in Art and Architecture
  7. Plane Figures
  8. Point, Line, Surface, Solid
  9. Study of Lines
  10. Study of Angles
  11. Study of Plane Figures
  12. Perimeter of Plane Figures
  13. Congruence, Equivalence, and Similarity
  14. Concept of Area
  15. Computation of Area
  16.  Geometric Solids (names, parts, classifications)
  17.  Concept of Volume
  18. Finding of the Volume (rectangular prisms and cubes)
  19. Problem-solving
  20. One- and two-step Problems, involving all four operations
  21. Mental Math
  22. Problems Using Whole Numbers, Fractions, and Decimals
  23. Problems Applying Time, Money, and Measurement
  24. Practical Applications (cooking, sewing, construction of things, etc.)
  25. Writing Original Problems
  26. Reading and Making Tables and Graphs (picture and bar)

Biology Curriculum

The study of plants and animals is an essential part of the elementary environment.  As children learn to care for and observe living things, they acquire the experiential basis for future understanding and love of biology.  Children study anatomy, physiology, and the classification of living things, and write reports on the organisms they research.  Through these studies children develop an understanding of the interactions between living and nonliving matter.  The interdependence of things is stressed and an appreciation and sense of wonder unfolds as the harmony of creation is revealed.

Major Components of the Biology Curriculum

  1. Introduction to Biology
  2. Living/Nonliving
  3. Classification System
  4. Plant/Animal/Human
  5. Zoology
  6. “Who Am I?” Animal Stories
  7. Needs of Animals and How They Are Met
  8. External Parts of Vertebrates
  9. Internal Functions of Vertebrates
  10. Animal Kingdom Charts
  11. Time Line of Life – Study of Animals

III.  Botany

  1. “Who Am I?” Plant Stories
  2. Need of Plants and How They Are Met
  3. Study and Functions of Plants
  4. Plant Kingdom Chart
  5. Time Line of Life – Study of Plants
  6. Ecology
  7. Study of Biomes and Habitats
  8. Interdependence of Living Things
  9. Student Research about Endangered Species
  10. Student Research about Preservation of Environment

Geography Curriculum

Geography opens the door for the unfolding drama of Earth’s story, from its inception to its present state.  It begins with the story of “The Creation of the Universe” to give a vision of the whole, and proceeds to more detailed studies of Earth and its place in the universe.  Geography is fully integrated into the physical sciences as geography lessons are accompanied by scientific demonstrations and impressionistic charts.  As children study geography and other subjects, they become interested not merely in the world and how it works, but in their individual roles and what part they might play in the continuing story of humanity.

Major Components of the Geography Curriculum

  1. Physical Science
  2. Creation of the Universe
  3. Parts of the Universe
  4. Laws of the Universe
  5. Earth Science
  6. Relationship of the Earth and Sun
  7. Composition of the Earth
  8. The Atmosphere and its Work
  9. The Hydrosphere and its Work

III.  Physical Geography

  1. Continents and Oceans
  2. Climate and Vegetation
  3. Latitude and Longitude, Time Zones
  4. Definitions and Identification of Land and Water Forms
  5. Political Geography (Emphasis on Cultural Studies)
  6. Countries of the World
  7. Study of the United States
  8. Mississippi
  9. Economic Geography
  10. Natural Resources
  11. Production and Consumption Patterns
  12. Interdependencies
  13. Geography Resources
  14. Map Reading
  15. Atlas and Almanac Work

History Curriculum

The child’s personal sense of time is the starting point for the history curriculum.  Children create personal and family time lines as a precursor to their work with time lines of human history.  Children also develop a historical sense of time through the Time Lines of Life and Early People, and the B.C.E./C.E. Time Line.  These visual aids are presented with stories, specimens, and artifacts to help children understand the development of life and civilizations.

Major Components of the History Curriculum

  1. Introductory Lessons
  2. The Story of The God with No Hands (Creation of the Universe)
  3. The Story of the Coming of Life
  4. Clock of Eras
  5. Timeline of Life
  6. History of Early Human Beings
  7. Hand Time Line
  8. First Time Line of Humans
  9. Second Time Line of Humans

III.  Measurement of Time

  1. Family Time Line/Personal Time Line
  2. Parts of the Days of the Week, Months of the Year
  3. B.C.E./C.E. – B.C./A.D. Time Line
  4. Study
  5. Great Civilizations
  6. Fundamental Needs of People
  7. How One Need is Met by Different Civilizations
  8. How All Needs are Met in a Particular Civilization
  9. Great Inventions and Contributions to History
  10. The Study and Research of Great Men and Women
  11. History of a Particular Country